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Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. With 36 reported cases and approximately unreported cases out of 2.
All reported HIV cases in Mongolia occurred via sexual transmission; among women, more than half of the cases are women engaged in sex work NCCD, No studies have examined the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for HIV prevention in Mongolia. Studies examining the experience of sex workers across the globe indicate that women who engage in sex work are at high risk of HIV infection Cote et al.
These studies highlight multiple adverse social and environmental contexts contributing to HIV risk, including high rates of poverty, violence, and addiction Cote et al. A number of significant indicators suggest that women engaged in sex work in Mongolia may be at particularly high risk for STIs, including HIV.
The weak economy has spurred increases in both internal and external mobility, as individuals, primarily men, move through Mongolia in search of employment. There is also strong evidence in Mongolia of increasing STI prevalence—other than HIV—with comparable rates found in samples of traditionally high-risk groups e. Alcohol use in Mongolia is high in the general population: Although no studies have examined the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for HIV prevention in Mongolia, current prevention programming directed at sex workers is provided by the NAF.
A key limitation of current programming is that it is predominantly education based. Skills-based HIV prevention programs Lyles et al.