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Somalia remains a Special Case for the eleventh consecutive year. The self-declared independent Republic of Somaliland and Puntland State were in control of security and law enforcement in their respective regions. The new Somali federal government focused on capacity-building and securing Mogadishu and government facilities from attacks by the terrorist organization al-Shabaab. The government has minimal capacity to investigate and prosecute most crime, including human trafficking.
Justice was primarily provided through military courts. Civilian courts were limited in number and capacity but functioned during the year. The respective authorities operating in Somalia's three regions struggled to address human trafficking, demonstrating weak efforts in prosecution, protection, and prevention in all regions.
Somalia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking.
Information regarding trafficking in Somalia remains extremely difficult to obtain or verify. Victims are primarily trafficked within the country from Somalia's southern and central regions to the regions of Puntland and Somaliland in the north.
In Somaliland, women act as recruiters and intermediaries to take victims to Puntland State, Djibouti, and Ethiopia for the purposes of domestic servitude or sex trafficking. Somali women and girls may be subjected to sex trafficking in Garowe, Las Anod Sool region , and pirate towns such as Harardheere; girls are reportedly taken from coastal regions, particularly Bossaso, and placed in pirates' homes to be exploited in domestic and sexual servitude. Pirates also use children aged 15 to 17 to carry out their illegal activities.